LEFT – RIGHT: Sylvester Inambao Kalima (56), Likando Pelekelo (63) and Afumba Mombotwa (59); Barotse political prisoners incarcerated in Zambian jails since December 5th 2014 for advocating Barotse people’s rights to self-determination.


Author: Media Editor, Barotseland Post

The following compilation by Afumba Mombotwa advance one hundred (100) reasons why Barotseland and Zambia can never and will never be one nation. The one hundred reasons were sent to the United Nations in 2013 to clearly illustrate that there can never be any union or relationship between Barotseland and Zambia other than that of being neighbours forever and that this fact must be easily understood by any sane person.

They are here below tabulated in no particular order. Send us your comments below to disprove or approve any of or all of them.

1. Nobody can refute the territorial integrity of Barotseland in the world.

2. Barotseland is an organic nation.

3. Barotzish people (Barotse) did not renounce their nationality in 1964.

4. Barotseland and Zambia did not confederate.

5. Nobody can claim anything under an Agreement that is not in force.


6. The Barotzish people are not made by a constitution. While the constitution was made by man, the man was never made by the constitution. So we (Barotse) have already rejected the Zambian constitution.

7. The Litunga (King) cannot be a subject of his subjects such as Councillors/ MPs.

8. Britain had no moral right to transfer Barotseland into the hands of a novice state (Zambia).

9. When Sir Mwanawina signed the Agreement, he represented the Nation of Barotseland, whereas Mr Kaunda represented his Government (temporal authority) so we have nothing to do with the successor governments.

10. Any Agreement does not offer rights to the third party.

11. The relationship of Britain and Barotseland was based on treaties signed, but when the treaties were terminated, also the relationship came to an end; similarly, the relationship between Barotseland and Zambia came to an end when Barotseland Agreement 1964 was terminated.

12. Zambia is occupying Barotseland illegally.

13. The Barotzish people did not surrender their sovereignty to any state ever since.

14. Mr Kaunda signed Barotseland Agreement 1964 when he was a Malawian citizen until 1970 when he renounced his Malawian Nationality. Hence, he acted as an imposter; thus whatever he did to us is null and void.


15. The law of Zambia does not recognise Barotseland as a state party, but as a vassal state to it. This causes animosity.

16. We (Barotse) cannot debate our identity, self-determination and our right to our own country Barotseland.

17. There is nothing that gives Zambia any right to rule Barotseland apart from military hardware.


18. Nobody can convince us (Barotse) on how and when we became Zambians since the law proves the contrary.

19. The British tried to merge or compromise the two antithetical political systems viz a Republic and a Monarchy. This causes antagonism.

20. No law on earth is against liberty and self-rule.

21. No nation has the right to swallow another.


22. Independence is neither crime nor misdemeanour.

23. In default of the Union Act, there is no law to prove that Barotseland and Zambia were politically united.

24. That which is made contrary to law is deemed not to have been done at all or it is illegal.

25. Barotseland is not a legal part of Zambia. The President of Zambia simply inherited the obligations of her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain (coloniser). So Zambia is a quasi-coloniser or protector of Barotseland.


26. Barotseland was treated like a serf from 1964 to date.

27. The law stipulates that the Agreement that has not entered into force is not legally binding, thus we have nothing to do with the Agreement and Zambia.

28. We stake a claim to Barotseland; nobody else can claim our territory.

29. Zambia wants to rely on the law of succession to rule Barotseland.


30. The Barotseland question requires the applicability of international law, justice and law of Agreements and Human Rights law and not laws of Zambia or personal opinions.

31. Unity, cohesion or relationship cannot be maintained by the barrel of the gun.

32. Colonisers can build schools, hospitals and roads, but that does not change their character and nature, they still remain colonisers.

33. We are fed up of being tormented, dominated and incarcerated by dishonest, unscrupulous and treacherous people (Zambia).

34. Mr Kaunda said “we cannot have a Nation within a Nation”; equally we cannot cease to be a Nation because of an ill-bred mortal being who does not want us to be.

35. As Barotzish, we cannot lose our nation on account of demagogic ideologies of “tiyende pamodzi.”


36. Zambia’s political propaganda and promises enforced by security officers can never legitimize Zambia’s illegal occupation of Barotseland.

37. Mr Kaunda declared that the “Litunga is simply a chief (Induna) and Mr Sata resounded the same words; no sane Barotse person could be pleased with this state of affairs. This is an explicit testimony of hegemonic dominance.

38. Zambians are for the republic whereas Barotzis are for the Kingdom; two disparate systems cannot co-exist in a designed territory.

39. The essence for seeking for protection of Barotseland by King Lewanika was to preserve the territory for the future generations of which we are.


40. No country can sign a treaty with itself.

41. Barotseland and Zambia cannot be one; these are two foreign countries.

42. Any developmental project that may appear in Barotseland is donor-funded, this being the case; we ought to meet donors directly without any intermediary ourselves.

43. We (Barotse) have the ability, the intellect and knowledge to develop our country Barotseland.


44. The Barotzis do not enjoy the freedom of assembly and expression under the colonization of Zambia

45. The Zambia Police shall continue assassinating people of Barotseland if the yoke of Zambian hegemonic is not broken in Barotseland.

46. The Barotzis have never enjoyed their peace of mind since 1964.

47. The abrogation of the 1964 Barotseland Agreement releases Zambia of her responsibility arising from treaty obligations.

48. That which is not in conformity with the law is illegal. N.B. There is no legal tie between Barotseland and Zambia.

49. Mr Kaunda took away all the powers of the Litunga (King) without any consent of the people viz another testimony of domination.


50. There will be no harmony as long as aliens want to have control of our land or rather take it away.

51. The social and political struggle to reconstruct our nation out of various ethnic groups of Barotseland and to liberate Barotseland from Zambian oppression is a right.

52. We cannot afford to continue celebrating the colonization of Barotseland by Zambia because it is mental torture.

53. Barotseland was not a colony of Britain; so there is no justifiable reason for her to be colonised by a fellow African Nation.


54. What the British did not obtain by conquest Zambia wants to possess by artifice.

55. Barotseland has been engaged in a struggle against hegemonic dominance since 1965, hence she deserves freedom now.

56. The demise of white colonization did not signal the end of domination and subjugation of weaker by the stronger in Africa; hence Mr Sata President of Zambia told the Barotse Activists at State House “you are in a weaker position.”


57. The Agreement was terminated; we cannot continue to associate ourselves with Zambia anymore.

58. Our relation was artificial or not real and the condominium agreement we entered into has been rejected.

59. West Nyasa (Northern Rhodesia) Zambia was a British crown colony whereas Barotseland was a British Protectorate; the two are not compatible.

60. Zambian Government has been meddling in the internal affairs and interfering in the cultural and traditional activities of Barotseland; that is something detestable.

61. Legal axiom states “a thing is made and destroyed by one and the same means” viz Mr Kaunda made the relation and the same Mr Kaunda destroyed it; so things have fallen apart.


62. Barotseland as a Nation should enjoy the rights accorded to other nations.

63. Our lives as Barotzis are in danger and our community is likely to face extinction as soldiers have been ordered to kill those they identify as Lozi language speakers.

64. Barotzis are charged with treason even for talking about their history.

65. Barotseland is cited to be backward in terms of development by Zambia Central Statistical Office, and our country has been impoverished by design.


66. If we are the owners of Barotseland and everything in it, then we must be the ones in charge of our resources, control and manage it without restraint.

67. We are fed up with divide and rule tactics of Zambian Governments where a dog is set to eat another dog.

68. The Barotse plains or Lealui has been declared a world heritage site viz a place of historical and cultural importance; for this reason, Barotseland cannot be swallowed but be revived.


69. There is absolutely nothing that compels or binds Barotseland to Zambia.

70. President Kaunda arrested and detained Barotzis; President Banda’s Government did not only arrest but killed; President Sata found it fit to declare war and ordered soldiers to kill as did Mr Banda. There seems to be a deliberate policy worse than that of white colonialism.


71. We (Barotse) are treated as rebels and criminals by the Zambian Government for the knowledge of our rights.

72. The Zambian Constitution Review Commission 2003 stated that “Zambian Government derives its authority over Barotseland from the Barotseland Agreement 1964” further stated; failing to honour the Barotseland Agreement raises a question as to where the Zambian Government derives its authority to administer Barotseland from.

73. We want to be in a position where we can face Zambia on the atrocities she has committed; because they have been arrogantly saying “you cannot bite the finger that feeds you”.


74. The Zambia Government has already betrayed us; we don’t want the Rwandan situation to occur.

75. Africa currently uses the principle of “uti possideto” viz the permanence of inherited colonial frontiers safe-guarding existing boundaries; this being so, we too have to guard our boundaries.

76. We are against forced assimilation.


77. After the dissolution of the federation, there could be no Zambia in Malawi; similarly, after termination of the Agreement, we could have no Barotseland in Zambia only senseless people can condone that.

78. Since the original idea that intended to preserve Barotseland’s autonomy within Zambia was curtailed, this time we cannot dream of fresh Agreements to be an enclave that would be as good as taking one step forward and one step backwards.

79. By advocating for inclusion of the Agreement in the Zambian constitution; some Barotzish people were begging to be part of Zambia; which is a clear testimony that they have realised that they were excluded.


80. Administering a territory is not synonymous with unification. Period!

81. We wish to be conducting memorial services freely for our beloved ones who were butchered by Zambia.

82. No part of Barotseland was ceded to any country by consent of her inhabitants.

83. Our national anthem still remains “Barotseland is the land of our forefathers” and not anything else.


84. It is contrary to Human Rights norms for Barotseland to continue being colonised.

85. Barotseland was not destined to be ruled or governed by aliens (Zambians).

86. We are a country with a distinct African identity.

87. The situation of Barotseland and her people demands social justice for peace to prevail.

88. The Barotzis have been trying to be realistic with their state of affairs; whereas Zambians are idealistic and full of injustice.

89. If trying to bring two disparate nations of Barotseland and Zambia to make one was an experiment, then the observation of killing and declaration of war conclude that the desired transformation can never take place.


90. The Barotzis cannot be transformed into anything else (c.f. Musasa Musiwa’s Lozi song) just as paraffin and water cannot mix though both are liquids.

91. The applicability of the right to self-determination cannot be limited to cases of Africa struggling against white rule.


92. The building block upon which Zambia was constructed and extended to Barotseland was deceit, lies, treachery, delusion, dishonest and unfaithfulness.

93. Sometimes a rider may feed a horse nicely and fatten it, and wash it, but that does not change the situation of a rider and a horse.

94. Of all the British Protectorates, only Barotseland was cast into the den of Zambians to be devoured by her.

95. It is a deliberate policy that Barotzis have to be arrested and detained without any offence and then released on Nolle Prosecui so that they cannot be compensated.

96. We are in a situation where Judges are suspended if they dispense justice fairly.


97. After killing people in Barotseland, nobody in Zambia ever thought of reconciliation or redress; instead, people of Barotseland were teased with Chongwe Commission, an exercise in futility.

98. We are not as tamed as animals. Even if we were, when a tamed animal reverts to its natural habitat or jungle life, nothing is wrong; it is in order.


99. We are human beings with dignity; we deserve to be respected and not taken for granted or for a cheap commodity.

100. Our people could not shed blood and die in vain if what they died for cannot be accomplished. They lost lives by the order of the diabolic government.




  1. Strictly speaking the so called reasons advanced for secession are neither here nor there.
    Let just speak in general: human history has evolved since the fall of man in eden. Suffice to say that we are all immigrants in this part of the world, we all came from somewhere.
    Even in Europe or America it’s the same story-everyone emigrated from somewhere to form the nations or countries we see today.

    Take for example central and southern Africa, present day DR Congo and Angola were dominated by two Empires or kingdoms if you will namely: The Luba-Lunda kingdoms under mwatayanvwa. I believe a group of some lozis were part of these kingdoms before emigrating to present day Zambia.

    In the southern Africa we see the zulu kingdom, monomotapa, xhosa and makololo. Makololos came here and defeated the lozi before retreating to Botswana and Namibia.

    My point is we are all immigrants including the lozi. My observation is that if the lozis continue with this trend, they can cause civil war mark my words! Those who know history that’s how nazi German started with their misguided idea of superior race which I detect in the article above purported to have been sent to the UN.

    My personal experience both living abroad for 10yrs and my native Zambia is that we learn a lot from different cultures and it improves our understanding of the wide world. Now because of advancement in technology we are living in a global village. Therefore, there’s no need to hold on the relics of history. Society is dynamic. Hundred years from now we don’t know what society will look like.

    Let’s enjoy as zambians our common heritage. I encourage the lozi people to sober up for the common good and not to be antagonistic.
    I beg to submit.


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